How can I prevent the spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV)?
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is spread by exposure to blood or body fluids from a person living with hepatitis B.
There are vaccines available to prevent HBV infection. The hepatitis B vaccine is provided free to babies as part of their routine childhood immunizations. For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #105 Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib) Vaccine.
The vaccine is also provided free to those born in 1980 or later and to specific at-risk groups, such as sexual and household contacts of someone living with HBV and healthcare providers. For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #25a Hepatitis B Vaccine.
If you have been diagnosed with acute or chronic HBV infection, you can reduce the chance of passing this virus to others by doing the following:
- Talk to your health care provider if you are pregnant, as HBV infection can be passed to your baby. This risk can be greatly reduced by giving your baby hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) and the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine series at birth. Antiviral medications may also be recommended for you to take before you give birth, to further reduce the risk of passing the virus to your baby. Breastfeeding is safe for your baby if your nipples aren’t cracked or bleeding
- Do not share drug snorting, smoking or injection equipment such as straws, pipes, cookers, filters, water, needles and syringes
- Practice safer sex. Using a barrier (e.g., condom) every time you have sex will help to reduce the risk of HBV and other sexually transmitted infections. For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #08o Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
- Encourage your sex partner(s) and people you live with to get tested for HBV. If they do not have the virus, they should receive the HBV vaccine
- Never donate your blood, semen, body organs or tissues
- Tell your health care provider if you have ever donated or received blood products or tissue transplants
- Do not share personal care items or medical devices that could have tiny amounts of blood on them, such as razors, toothbrushes or nail files
- Keep all open cuts and sores bandaged until healed
- Put articles that could have your blood on them in separate plastic bags before disposing them into household garbage, including bandages, tissues, tampons, razors, or dental floss
- Use a solution of 9 parts water to 1 part bleach to clean areas of your home or personal items that could have your blood on them. See HealthLinkBC File #97 Contact with Blood or Body Fluids: Protecting Against Infection for more information
- Advise anyone who has been exposed to your blood or body fluids that you are living with HBV. Depending upon the type of exposure and their immunization history, blood tests, hepatitis B vaccine and/or HBIg may be recommended. Hepatitis B vaccine and/or HBIg can reduce the risk of HBV infection if the person is susceptible. If the exposure involves unprotected sexual contact or contact with a person’s broken skin or mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth or nose, they should see a health care provider as soon as possible, preferably within 48 hours
How is hepatitis B virus not spread?
HBV is not spread by
- Casual contact, such as in an office setting or school
- Coughing or sneezing
- Physical contact such as hugging and kissing
- Using the same dishes or cutlery or sharing meals
- Breastfeeding, unless the nipples are cracked and bleeding
- The healthy skin of others coming into contact with your body fluids such as saliva, urine, feces or vomit
How does hepatitis B virus affect people?
Adults and children 5 years of age and over may have symptoms, which include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, extreme tiredness, fever, loss of appetite and jaundice or yellowing of the skin. Most children under 5 years of age and adults with weakened immune systems do not have any symptoms.
Most adults will clear an initial infection and recover completely. Less than 5 percent of healthy adults will develop chronic HBV infection, whereas more infants infected at birth will likely develop chronic infection. This lifelong infection may lead to scarring of the liver, called cirrhosis. Cirrhosis can lead to liver failure and/or cancer in a small number of people. Talk to your health care provider about regular screening for liver cancer if you have chronic HBV infection.
Is there treatment for hepatitis B?
There is no treatment for acute hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis B infection can be treated with medicines that can slow down the progression of liver injury and reduce the chance of liver cancer, but there is no cure.
See your health care provider regularly to see how your liver is functioning and if you need treatment.
What can I do to stay as healthy as possible if I am living with HBV?
- Avoid alcohol as it causes liver damage, and can increase liver damage caused by HBV
- It is important to manage your HBV infection and take good care of your health. HBV should not be a barrier to employment, school or other activities
- Get more information about HBV from your health care provider, local health unit, support groups, or the Canadian Liver Foundation at www.liver.ca
- See your health care provider regularly, usually about twice a year
- Check with your health care provider before taking any new medicines or vitamins, including over the counter and herbal medicines. Avoid ibuprofen
- Get tested for HIV, hepatitis C virus and other sexually transmitted infections. For more information see https://smartsexresource.com, https://getcheckedonline.com/Pages/default.aspx, HealthLinkBC File #08m HIV and HIV Tests and HealthLinkBC File #40a Hepatitis C Virus Infection
- Get the hepatitis A vaccine if you are not already immune. The vaccine is free for people living with hepatitis B. For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #33 Hepatitis A Vaccine
- Get the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and then get a booster dose of the vaccine 5 years later. For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #62b Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine
- Get the influenza vaccine every year. The vaccine is free for people living with hepatitis B and is usually available in October. For your best protection you should get the vaccine as soon as it is available. For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #12d Inactivated Influenza (Flu) Vaccine
- Eat healthy, nutritious food as outlined by the Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide. See https://food-guide.canada.ca/en/ for more information.
- Get regular exercise.
- Avoid smoking. For information about quitting smoking, please see HealthLinkBC File #30c Quitting Smoking
- If you inject drugs, you can reduce your risk of acquiring hepatitis B and other blood borne pathogens by not sharing drug use supplies and using sterile supplies with every injection. For information about managing substance use, visit HeretoHelp www.heretohelp.bc.ca or call 310-6789 for free, 24 hour support
- If you use drugs, visit Toward the Heart https://towardtheheart.com for information about overdose recognition, prevention, and B.C.’s Take Home Naloxone Program